|US: Farming Life May Head Offshore|
April 27th, 2005
Thousands of oil and natural gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico could be
converted into deep-sea fish farms raising red snapper, mahi-mahi, yellowfin
tuna and flounder under a plan backed by the Bush administration.
years, marine biologists and oil companies have experimented using the giant
platforms as bases for mariculture, but commercial use of the platforms as fish
farms never got off the ground because of the federal government's reluctance to
open up the oceans to farming.
Yet in December, President Bush proposed
making it easier to launch fish farms off the nation's coasts. The White House
said that could be accomplished by resolving a "confounding array of regulatory
and legal obstacles."
Fish farming in the rough-and-tumble ocean, done by
enclosing thousands of fish in submerged pens serviced by scuba divers, is
limited commercially to waters within state jurisdiction, where permits have
tended to be easier to get. Moi is grown in Hawaii, and cobia is farmed near
Puerto Rico. Salmon farming is common, but it takes place mostly in the calm
waters of fiords and bays.
But fish farmers say the future is rosy and
"In Asia, they're starting to creep off into the open
waters; there's a lot of talk of doing it in Ireland. In the Mediterranean, they
are now looking at moving out into open waters and experimenting with new
cages," said Richard Langan, who heads the University of New Hampshire's Open
Ocean Aquaculture program. He is experimenting with a variety of species: cod,
Atlantic halibut, haddock, summer flounder and mussels.
With seafood now
accounting for about $7 billion of the nation's trade deficit, advocates of
deep-sea farming say mariculture would bolster American seafood production and
provide much-needed employment in coastal communities harmed by the eclipse of
"It's already being done in a big way in Korea,
Taiwan and China," said Michael Rubino, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration's aquaculture coordinator. "In the U.S., we'd like to start
small, prove the concept and learn by doing."
The U.S. Commission on
Ocean Policy recommended in its report last year to move forward with offshore
aquaculture but to hold it to high environmental standards. In a response to the
commission's report, Bush in his "Ocean Action Plan" listed offshore farming
legislation as a priority this year.
The new frontier is federal waters,
"There's no good framework in terms of where this should be
done, how it should be done, how the rules of the game should be applied," he
The gulf could be just the place where such a framework is
Oil and gas platforms can function as barn-like bases:
They're big enough to store feed, their deck winches and cranes can lift and
drop pens in and out of the water, and, if needed, fish farmers can spend the
And unlike many in Florida and California, the people
along the coasts of Louisiana and Texas by and large welcome the offshore
industry and its array of spindly legged and blinking rigs and platforms.
"The gulf has tremendous potential," said Granvil Treece, an aquaculture
specialist at Texas Sea Grant, a program that supports university research and
is part of Texas A&M University. "There's been a logjam so far, and that's
been because of permitting mostly."
There are about 3,500 idle platforms
in the gulf — and each one of them could be a candidate for becoming a fish
"The oil companies are looking for a way of leaving platforms in
place and delaying the disassembly and expensive process of dismantling and
removing a platform," said George Chamberlain, president of the St. Louis-based
Global Aquaculture Alliance.
It costs about $2 million to bring a
platform ashore, Treece said, but another option, the rigs-to-reefs program in
which a platform is converted into an artificial reef, costs about $800,000.
Chamberlain said the cost of production in fish farming continued to decline.
Farming from the gulf's platforms has been only experimental. In the
late 1980s and early 1990s, for example, Occidental Petroleum
Corp. teamed up with Texas Sea Grant scientists to grow redfish.
Severe storms damaged some pens, and fish got out. And Treece said
studies showed that the ocean-raised redfish worked out to cost $22 a pound,
whereas the market price for redfish was $3.50 a pound. Also, just to run the
platform's navigational lights and fight off corrosion cost about $50,000 a
year, he said.
Russell Miget, a Texas Sea Grant fisheries specialist who
worked on the project, remembered standing on a platform with an Occidental
representative contemplating the future of fish farming. Responding to a
question, Miget estimated that in ideal conditions, the platform could gross $6
million a year.
Critics worry about turning the nation's oceans into the
equivalent of ugly, dirty feedlots — for fish instead of cattle.
much like chickens or hogs or other confined feeding operations on land and
putting them in the ocean," said Roger Rufe, president of the Ocean Conservancy.
"There are considerable issues with that, pollution issues."
thinks the gulf's strong currents "should take care of that."
solution to pollution is dilution, and that's what you got out here — lots of
dilution," he said.
"We've found environmental impacts to be relatively
minor," Rubino said. "You don't want to crowd these together and stick them on
top of coral reefs."
He added, "This is a big coastline. We're not
needing a lot of space."
Critics also question whether the government
should designate sections of the ocean for farming and, in effect, privatize a
Another concern: Hatchery-raised fish could be put out
in open-water farms, escape into the wild and corrupt wild populations' genetic
Alaskan fishermen, for example, warn that Atlantic salmon bred in
fish farms is infiltrating their wild stocks.
This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.